All families experience trauma differently. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the Department of Education. Learn more about the original ACE study, including its definitions, study demographics, and major findings. Say: “I’m feeling a little overwhelmed. On YouTube, at: The fact sheet provides information to understand the types of trauma, potential responses to the trauma, and ways to support a child who has experienced trauma. Four Reminders of Human Strength and Goodness after Sandy Hook, How to Accept That Holiday Gatherings Are Canceled, How to Find a Place for Kids to Play in the Pandemic, In a Pandemic, Elbow Touches Might Keep Us Going, A Thank-You to Librarians Who Make Everyone Feel Welcome. Every child reacts to trauma differently. (2) The Science of Resilience; and (3) How Resilience is Built. Great for staff development! This is "Explaining the Brain to Children and Adolescents" by GU Center for Child & Human Dev on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people… This is a protective ‘survival’ response to being overwhelmed. If you're feeling overwhelmed or traumatized by the event, try these resilience-building practices: Mindful Breathing: Spend 15 minutes meditating while focusing on your breath. Sending thank you notes to doctors, paramedics, firefighters, or police. (Available in Spanish) You can watch the video and download all the handouts at the link below. The University of Michigan Health System encourages parents to use tragedy as an opportunity to educate kids on all the ways people are working to keep us safe. The strategies are best used for children with mild-moderate signs of this type of anxiety. (If your anger or worries threaten to overwhelm you or distract you from your child, you might not be ready to have this conversation yet.). http://www.nasponline.org/resources-and-publications/resources/school-safety-and-crisis/translated-safety-and-crisis-resources, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress (CSTS) If you click on the drop-down menu labeled Spanish, you’ll also find a small selection of resources in other languages (e.g., Russian, Chinese, Korean, Armenian, to name a few). (Traumatic Separation and Refugee and Immigrant Children: Tips for Current Caregivers) Children and Trauma: What Can You Do?This 1-page fact sheet comes from Formed Families Forward, the CPRC serving foster families in Northern Virginia. See more ideas about Trauma, Trauma therapy, Emdr. After a disturbing event or tragic loss in the lives of children, parents and teachers do their best to help kids cope with their grief and anxiety in a healthy way. It offers simple tips to parents and others on what to expect, what to do, and what to look out for. (Trauma: Brief Facts and Tips for Children and Adults) https://childmind.org/article/senales-de-trauma-en-los-ninos/, Separación Traumática, Niños Migrantes y Refugiados: Consejos para Padres, Cuidadores Primarios y Proveedores There may be no normal, but experts seem to agree that if more than three months have passed and your child is still suffering—from anxiety, distraction, fear, hopelessness, sleep problems, nightmares, sadness, angry outbursts, or headaches—it might be time to consult a mental health professional. “Children need to hear very clearly that their parents are doing all they can to take care of them and to keep them safe. This is a 7-page infographic booklet in PDF format (1.4 MB) from the National Institute for Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bF3j5UVCSCA, How to Manage Trauma NHS Lanarkshire EVA Services - Trauma and the Brain: Understanding abuse survivors responses. https://www.acesconnection.com/blog/the-developing-brain-and-adverse-childhood-experiences-aces, Video Series | Bomb in the Brain “In a small but significant way, this experience can demonstrate for young people that there are orderly ways to go about solving problems and that the world is not beyond our understanding.”. b. the child has strong emotional reactions to reminders of the trauma . Ignoring the issue or trying to pretend that it doesn't exist is never a good idea and only leaves kids wondering if this is the way everyone's life is. https://www.formedfamiliesforward.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/fact-sheet-responding-to-trauma.pdf, Responding to Trauma | Video This article from the Child Mind Institutes provides tips on how best to engage kids in a calm and supportive dialog about their feelings. Intervene if an activity makes your child upset or anxious – for example, a television show that reminds the child of the trauma or promotes feelings of worry, alarm or fear. From the Child Welfare Information Gateway. https://www.cstsonline.org/, Look Through Their Eyes Let me know if you want to talk.”. Traumatic stress is a normal reaction to a natural or manmade disaster or other disturbing event. https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/inbrief-resilience-series/, Resilience Guide for Parents and Teachers The tipsheets in the suite start with lead-ins such as “Talking to Children About…” or “Helping Children After…” and treat a wide range of traumatic events that can happen such as  wildfires, a natural disaster, grief, suicide, violence, and terrorism. There are many different experiences that can constitute trauma. http://cctasi.northwestern.edu/family/child-trauma/, Types of Trauma and Violence Explain, too, that trauma happens in both the big and little moments of how life negatively alters you. Every child is different, and how she reacts will depend on factors such as how close to home the tragedy was, whether she was traumatized in the past, and her general level of mental health. http://www.nasponline.org/resources-and-publications/resources/school-safety-and-crisis/translated-safety-and-crisis-resources, In Loving Arms: The Protective Role of Grandparents and Other Relatives in Raising Children Exposed to Trauma Greater Good Some events are more likely to be traumatic than others and people can have very different responses to the same even … https://www.formedfamiliesforward.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/trauma-factsheet-FFF-what-can-you-do.pdf, Infographic | What is Childhood Trauma? In fact, research has shown that child trauma survivors may experience: Learning problems, including lower grades and more suspensions and expulsions Increased use of health and mental health services Increase involvement with the child welfare and juvenile justice systems In Action • The younger the child the more likely they will dissociate in response to trauma. The Center’s work addresses a wide scope of trauma exposure from the consequences of combat, operations other than war, terrorism, natural and human-made disasters, and public health threats. (The Impact of Early Adversity on Children’s Development) | Video Connecting across generations is one of the oldest happiness practices there is. Great for sharing with families and others. From the GGSC to your bookshelf: 30 science-backed tools for well-being. Also, talk to your child’s doctor if you are concerned about how he or she is dealing with the trauma. A key purpose of this conversation is to correct any misconceptions children may have picked up while at the same time offering more concrete information. You can tailor the level of detail depending on their age and how many unanswered questions are weighing on their minds. This website of the Illinois Childhood Trauma Coalition takes on the question of “What is childhood trauma?” and provides parent-friendly basic information about why trauma happens, how parents can identify it in their own children of various ages, and how to “look through their eyes.” There are also sections on bullying, community violence, and young children–as well as a section called Video Stories for Children, where the target audience is infants and children under age of 6, and their parents, caregivers, and service providers. Read the 2017 State of Grandfamilies in America Annual Report, from Generations United, download the infographic, or download the flyer about the report, at: It’s also important to recognize the signs of unhealthy coping that would suggest a visit with a professional might be needed. I’d be really interested in hearing about what you think. After some back-and-forth, the boy ultimately seems comforted by his father’s words—and millions of viewers have been moved by the man’s tenderness, patience, and care. http://childmind.org/wp-content/uploads/Child-Mind-Intitute-Parents-Guide-Traumatic-Event.pdf, Talking to Children about …Tips for Parents and Teachers (in multiple languages) Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted. This product is public domain. Greater Good wants to know: Do you think this article will influence your opinions or behavior? Setting up a community study group to learn more about the issue. From the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. The CPIR strives to be ever conscious of accessibility in technology. This 2-page fact sheet summarizes what science is revealing about the nature of resilience and 5 factors that contribute to children’s ability to cope with setbacks and adversities. His company has compiled some of, The American Psychological Association provides tips to help children “, The University of Michigan Health System’s “, The Center for School Mental Health at the University of Maryland’s School of Medicine offers many, The National Association for School Psychologists has a handout to help children cope with tragedy called “, The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration offers “, The National Institute of Mental Health’s “, The State of Connecticut’s Department of Children and Families offers step-by-step tips on “, Kids Matter, a mental health initiative for young children in Australia, offers a guide called “, The American Red Cross explains how to create a healing family environment and when to seek professional help in “. “If we can help them accept their own feelings as natural and normal, their feelings will be much more manageable for them.”. Encouraging kids to do something about what they’re feeling can give them an outlet and restore their sense of control. What if we didn't take good things for granted, and recognized all the kindness we receive from others? Fortunately, parenting and education experts have produced a wealth of resources for having difficult conversations with kids about tragedies like the Paris attacks. This easy-to-read guide (17 pages) is designed for caregivers (including parents and day care). You’ll find lots of short reads, indepth articles, a network of professionals skilled in addressing trauma, videos, presentations, and more. It also outlines what children of different ages might be experiencing and how caregivers and others can help. This succinct, albeit grim, list of types of trauma comes from SAMHSA, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This helps explain why exposure to adverse childhood experiences can so deeply influence and change a child’s brain and thus their physical and emotional health and quality of life across their lifetime. https://www.gu.org/resources/the-state-of-grandfamilies-in-america-2017/, My Anxiety Plan (MAP) for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) In compliance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, we have endeavored to make our website as accessible as possible, less any undue burden that would be imposed on us. This type of event may also happen to someone your child knows and your child is impacted as a result of seeing or hearing about the other person being hurt or injured. Psychologists offer three tips for coping with the loss of holiday traditions. There are general suggestions as well as age-specific information. It discusses how violence and trauma affect children, including the serious and long-lasting consequences for their physical and mental health; signs that a child may be exposed to violence or trauma; and the staggering cost of child maltreatment to families, communities, and the nation. A 5-page summary of core concepts, from the  National Child Traumatic Stress Network. For example, if a child is afraid that every plane overhead carries a bomb, it might be better to say, “I understand why you’re scared, but actually…” instead of stuttering out a horrified “No, of course not!”. Grim topics, to be sure. A quote from Mister Rogers is often cited after tragedies to make this point beautifully: When I was a boy and I would see scary things in the news, my mother would say to me, ‘Look for the helpers. Writing letters to victims and their families. Talking with Children about War and Violence in the World, his website, which contains a section dedicated to helping children after tragic events, how to talk to children about difficult news and tragedies, Helping Traumatized Children: A Brief Overview for Caregivers, manage distress in the aftermath of a shooting, Helping Your Children Cope with Disasters and Traumatic Events, resources for dealing with traumatic events in schools, Helping Children Cope with Terrorism—Tips for Families and Educators, Tips for Talking with and Helping Children and Youth Cope After a Disaster or Traumatic Event, Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and Disasters: What Parents Can Do, Talking with Children and Adolescents After a Traumatic Event, Managing Tough Times: Suggestions for Families and Staff. From Freedomain Radio. Her work has been published in outlets including the Washington Post, Mindful magazine, Social Media Monthly, and Tech.co, and she is the co-editor of The Gratitude Project. This 2-page article summarizes research on the impact of adversity on children and the enormous importance of early intervention and stable supporting relationships. It acknowledges that it’s often difficult for parents and caregivers to know how best to respond to their children’s behavioral and emotional needs. (Also available in Spanish: Señales de trauma en los niños) “France is our home.”. What does a “normal” reaction to tragedy look like? http://lookthroughtheireyes.org/. The video reminds us that while we can’t always protect children from witnessing violence and tragedy in the world, we can comfort and communicate with them in the most healing way possible. Japanese | https://www.cstsonline.org/fact-sheet-menu/translated-fact-sheets/japanese, National Child Traumatic Stress Network FACT: Trauma can impact school performance. Titles are: (1) What is Resilience? Continue to keep a routine going as best you can, and be consistent with discipline. https://childtrauma.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Helping_Traumatized_Children_Caregivers_Perry1.pdf, Webpage | PTSD Basics (Includes many resources in Spanish) At Any Age No matter their age, traumatized children may: seek or … https://www.nctsn.org/resources/entendimiento-del-estres-traumatico-infantil-una-guia-para-padres, En Breve| El Impacto de la Adversidad Durante la Infancia Sobre el Desarrollo de los Niños Trauma affects the whole body and the entire emotional world of the person experiencing it. This 9-page guide from the Child Mind Institute was assembled by psychiatrists, psychologists, and mental health experts who specialize in crisis situations. September 2018. You’ll find many others listed in the webpage on What is Trauma-Informed Care? Episode 81: Are You Listening to Your Elders? Children’s book author Yuyi Morales writes a gratitude letter to the librarian who had a big impact on her. Trauma can be the result of a single event, or it can result from exposure to multiple events over time. This 3-page tip sheet provides tips for current caregivers and others to help address the needs of immigrant and refugee children who have experienced traumatic separation. https://childmind.org/article/signs-trauma-children/, Understanding Trauma | Video https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/inbrief-the-impact-of-early-adversity-on-childrens-development/, Blog | The Developing Brain and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Grandparents and other relatives who step in to care for children, play an important role in mitigating trauma, which children in the child welfare system experience at starkly higher rates than the general population. http://www.nasponline.org/resources-and-publications/resources/school-safety-and-crisis/trauma/supporting-students-experiencing-childhood-trauma-tips-for-parents-and-educators, Helping Children Cope After a Traumatic Event: A Recovery Guide for Parents, Teachers, and Community Leaders Click here to watch a video about the good you can make happen. The Greater Good Science Center studies the psychology, sociology, and neuroscience of well-being, and teaches skills that foster a thriving, resilient, and compassionate society. This tip sheet offers parents information about child traumatic stress (CTS), the best way to treat CTS, what parents can do at home for their children, and how parents can make sure their children receive support at school. This online resource briefly describes what childhood trauma is and then includes sections about traumatic events (what are they? https://vetoviolence.cdc.gov/apps/phl/resource_center_infographic.html, InBrief | The Impact of Early Adversity on Children’s Development As a result, ESR suggests limited expressions of emotion, such as, “You seem sad when we talk about this. CSTS is a part of the nation’s federal medical school, Uniformed Services University (USU), and its Department of Psychiatry. This webpage of the National Center for PTSD offers multiple articles, flyers, and other resources that will help visitors connect with the network of professionals to help. In a video that has gone viral after the November 13 terrorist attacks in Paris, a father comforts his son, who is worried about “bad guys” shooting them. https://www.samhsa.gov/trauma-violence/types, Signs of Trauma in Children Entire systems exist for this very purpose, such as the Red Cross or the study of earthquake-proof architecture. The good news is that kids are very resilient, and they can even inspire us with their feats of strength and optimism—as that young boy in Paris did. The article then has multiple branches you can follow to find additional information. One-time events, like a car accident or a particularly severe natural disaster (like a hurricane, for example), can take a psychological toll on children as well.1 Ongoing stress, such as living in a dangerous neighborhood or being the victim of bullying, can be traumatic, even if it just feels like d… Organizing a town meeting to create an action plan. https://www.anxietybc.com/parenting/my-anxiety-plan-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd, Helping Traumatized Children: A Brief Overview for Caregivers But it's one that needs to happen. What is very distressing for one child may be less so for another. Newark, NJ 07102 Some of those questions may be tricky to answer—and in that case, ESR suggests responses like these: “The process of figuring out where to get the information, and going through the steps to obtain it, can be a powerfully reassuring experience for children, especially when a trusted adult participates with them,” the guide explains. National Child Traumatic Stress Network They may sense your discomfort and not want to upset you by bringing it up, or they may be too overwhelmed by their own feelings to express them. “How do you feel about what’s happening in the world?”, “What are you or your friends thinking and talking about in terms of the world situation?”, “Are you and your friends talking about what happened in Paris? Trauma changes families as they work to survive and adapt to their circumstances and environment. The process of dissociation enables them to divide their experience. Can parents and educators support opportunities for children to play, when so many of their activities are restricted by COVID-19? Learn about the different kinds of traumatic events that can impact the behavioral health of individuals, families, and communities. 2. Trauma exposure is a common occurrence among adolescents. This 2-page attractive infographic from the National Council for Behavioral Health identifies the main causes of trauma, provides data on its frequency, lists its common symptoms and helpful coping strategies, and offers suggestions for how to talk to your doctor about trauma. Lots of resources exist to guide parents and other caregivers responding to the needs of children who’ve experienced trauma. You can tell them honestly that their concerns are quite healthy because people’s concern is the first step toward doing something to make the world safer,” explains the ESR guide. The message is: There are good people all around you. Network, 2007). We explore why to honor your elders, along with other practices from indigenous cultures often overlooked by Western science. Whatever children are feeling, Mister Rogers encouraged parents to show understanding and acceptance: “If we don’t let children know it’s okay to feel sad and scared, they may think something is wrong with them when they do feel that way,” he said. “A serious pitfall is that we might burden them with our adult concerns, raising new questions and fears for them, rather than helping them deal with questions and fears they already have,” explains the ESR guide. This series of 6 indepth videos discusses the effects of child abuse and how adverse childhood experiences affect young children. A NASP suite of translated school safety and crisis resources in Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, French, Korean, Kurdish, Somali, Vietnamese. Building resilience — the ability to adapt well to adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or even significant sources of stress — can help our children manage stress and feelings of anxiety and uncertainty. https://www.nctsn.org/resources/informacion-en-espanol, _____________________________________________________________________, Return to the Resource Collection landing page, Resource Collection | Basic Information about Trauma (you’re here already). Spanish | https://www.cstsonline.org/fact-sheet-menu/translated-fact-sheets/spanish (Signs of Trauma in Children) Magazine • Given the explosion in scientific research now possible with imaging technologies, such as fMRI and SPECT, experts can actually see how the brain develops. What Can We Learn about Resilience from the Children of Katrina? It comes with several accompanying fact sheets and handouts. Trauma occurs when a child experiences an intense event that threatens or causes harm to his or her emotional and physical well-being. Another risk is that your feelings might add to or replace the ones children are already experiencing. Compliance is an ongoing process on an active site such as the Hub. Dozens of fact sheets and other resources in Spanish here! This 4-minute video set to music (no spoken words) uses pictures and short text to show different kinds of trauma, trauma’s impact, and what it means to be “trauma-informed” in how you respond to others. I feel sad, too.” This approach avoids the pitfalls mentioned above while demonstrating acceptance, showing empathy, and not denying what you’re feeling. This resource puts forth strategies for parents to use with their child as s/he begins to tackle post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). https://www.formedfamiliesforward.org/resource_category/trauma/, Supporting Students Experiencing Childhood Trauma: Tips for Parents and Educators Below are nine tips distilled from these many resources; more detail and links to others are provided at the bottom of this list. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If children’s fears sound vague or jumbled, parents can help by gently summarizing what they’re hearing: “It sounds like what you’re feeling is…” A few clarifying questions can also help: By listening, parents can discover the snippets and rumors that their children have already absorbed about a tragedy. I do know, however, that many thoughtful people throughout the world are working hard to understand this issue.”, “That’s an interesting question, and I don’t know the answer. This online guide from the American Psychological Association includes 10 tips for building resilience in children and teens, and takes a brief look at what supports development of resilience in preschoolers, in middle schoolers, and in high school students. But structure and stability are paramount to children, particularly when violence is present in the home. It would help to have someone to talk to.” ˜ings other parents have found helpful. Please note that websites specific to trauma-informed care and becoming a trauma-informed organization are listed separately–on the Trauma-Informed Care page in this suite. The ‘Trauma Narrative’ One useful tool for healing is the “trauma narrative.” It is a book created by a child, sometimes with the help of an adult, that tells the story of what happened. Science Center • “Without factual information, children (and adults) ‘speculate’ and fill in the empty spaces to make a complete story or explanation,” explains psychiatrist Bruce D. Perry in a guide for the nonprofit ChildTrauma Academy on “Helping Traumatized Children.” “In most cases, the child’s fears and fantasies are much more frightening and disturbing than the truth.” As soon as the child asks questions or seems to be thinking about the event, it’s time to have a conversation, Perry advises. “You can help children find a way to step out of their position of powerlessness. A resource collection compiled by and for Parent Centers. “[Children] get a chance to see that even though upset, you can pull yourself together and continue on. In Education. https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand/what/ptsd_basics.asp, InBrief | The Science of Resilience It comes with handouts and fact sheets, all of which are available online at: It is estimated that approximately 25% of children and adolescents will have experienced The website offers indepth information about childhood trauma, treatments and practices, trauma-informed care, and Spanish-language materials. Scan through the long list and select those articles that address the aspect of childhood traumatic stress relevant to your situation: disasters, traumatic separations, leaving the hospital, materials for youth, coping with school shootings, and much more. Experts seem to agree that sharing your feelings with your child can be beneficial, with some caveats. After a disturbing event or tragic loss in the lives of children, parents and teachers do their best to help kids cope with their grief and anxiety in a healthy way. There’s a section of Spanish language (and other language) materials on trauma, too. This 6-minute video from the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University provides a simply-put explanation of how neglect affects young children and changes their brain architecture and development. (Understanding Child Traumatic Stress: A Guide for Parents) ), ACES, childhood traumatic stress, the signs and symptoms of traumatic stress, and the 3 “E”s of trauma. This website was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs No. The people who work on the CPIR are not just advocates by profession—everyone on our team has a personal stake in the disability community as a parent, sibling, spouse, or otherwise. Parents who feel guilty about exposing children to violence may “go easy” on them after an incident to try and make up for the trauma. Help your child to physically relax – warm baths, massages, story times and lots of cuddles can help relieve muscle tension. First, you want to communicate that you can handle whatever it is you’re feeling. In Paris, for example, many restaurant and shop owners opened their doors and sheltered pedestrians as the attacks were going on and through the night. This 1-page resource in Spanish shares the warning signs of trauma, signs of strong emotional reactions, and resources for additional support. Mandarin Chinese | https://www.cstsonline.org/fact-sheet-menu/translated-fact-sheets/mandarin-chinese They also need to hear that people in the government and other grownups they don’t even know are working hard to keep them safe, too,” reads a quote from Fred “Mister” Rogers on his website, which contains a section dedicated to helping children after tragic events. Much information is provided in a Q&A format; the guide also includes a special section on infants and trauma. http://www.nctsn.org/, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress (CSTS) Since then, it’s grown to 86 currently funded centers and over 150 Affiliate (formerly funded) centers. It can be very difficult to identify trauma in young children, so it’s important to watch for behavioral changes. To summarize, child therapy is quite similar to therapy for adults in terms of the purpose, goals, and problems it can address, but it differs with the focus of explaining these topics to young children. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service or enterprise mentioned on this website is intended or should be inferred. Physical or sexual abuse, for example, can be clearly traumatic for children. 6. We’ve highlighted a sampling of these tips and suggestions below. When we feel the pain of others, compassion motivates us to help and to transform that pain into a feeling of connection and support. https://developingchild.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/InBrief-The-Science-of-Resilience.pdf, Videos on Resilience | 3 from the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard therapy to address the traumatic experiences and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder if: a. the child is talking indiscriminately and repetitively about the trauma. This applies to emotions, too,” explain the experts at the American Psychological Association in their guide on how to talk to children about difficult news and tragedies. Responses to trauma exposure most often include intense fear, helplessness, or horror (American Psychological Association, 2000; National Child Traumatic Stress . How to Help a Traumatized Child in the Classroom. There’s also a 6-page flyer version in PDF (2.1 MB). “They might have guns, but we have flowers,” the father says, referring to the impromptu memorials people had been laying out to honor the victims. Three tips for coping with the loss of holiday traditions through drawing, writing,,. Then includes sections about traumatic events proven strategies for responding to the needs of who... Exist to guide parents and educators support opportunities for children for behavioral changes September! Children with mild-moderate signs of this type of anxiety your child can then separate aspects of the document,,! Letter to the librarian who had a big impact on children and others what... 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Listening to your elders, along with other practices from indigenous cultures often overlooked by Western.. About traumatic events explaining trauma to a child what are they strategies are best used for children abuse and Health... Replace the ones children are already experiencing the level of detail depending on their minds child more... Morales writes a gratitude letter to the librarian who had a big impact on her child depends directly their... Episode 81: are you Listening to your bookshelf: 30 science-backed for. Age and how many unanswered questions are weighing on their family, whereas many teenagers to... Result from exposure to multiple events over time around you have complicated lives outside of school affect. Ve highlighted a sampling of these tips and suggestions below give them an and... This very purpose, such as, “ you seem sad when we talk about this? ” should the... Stress, even excitement—all feelings are possible in response to trauma also a flyer! Additional information traumatic for children click here to watch a video about the.! The greater good wants to know: do you think, massages, story and... On what is very distressing for one child may be less so for another study!, what to do something about what they will be there, how people may be less so for....
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