Benjamin McLuckie of the Disaster Research Center was asked to study how to improve the effectiveness of written warnings. integrated KT-IKT), Traditional end of grant KT typically involves publication in peer-reviewed journals or presentation of results at appropriate meetings, Where appropriate dissemination can also include more non-traditional activities such as face to face meetings with knowledge users or engagement with media, Depending on the intent of the research endeavour, dissemination and exchange may be woven into the research process through an interactive, IKT process, Applicants are often asked to consider their knowledge dissemination strategy, which may also include knowledge exchange, when preparing grant applications, passive, unplanned, uncontrolled dissemination; primarily horizontal or mediated by peers (e.g. A shorter publication, the Natural Hazards Informer, contains research-based guidance geared specifically to practitioners. However, enough of these types of activities and programs have been selected to demonstrate the variability in the strategies employed to further research application. They may include a wide range of functions, … These include a flexible structure suited to activity coordination, good interpersonal relationships, frequent and open communication, adaptability, and shared responsibilities. Second, more can be understood about the challenges of social science research utilization when they can be compared with the challenges facing disciplines such as earthquake engineering and earth science. One topic would be to document variations in the accuracy of the information being provided by different types of information brokers. Persistent efforts by individuals can result in the adoption of programs that involve the application of hazards and disaster research knowledge. Examples of approaches to knowledge dissemination Knowledge brokers Serve as an intermediary who can facilitate collaborations between researchers and knowledge users, find evidence to shape decisions, assess, interpret and adapt evidence to local context and identify emerging issues that research can help solve Social science research conducted since the late 1970's has contributed greatly to society's ability to mitigate and adapt to natural, technological, and willful disasters. Underpinning earthquake risk-reduction efforts through NEHRP is the provision of technical assistance and research that develops new knowledge about (1) earthquake hazards; (2) the response of the natural, built, and social environments to those hazards; and (3) techniques to mitigate the hazards. The integrated knowledge management cycle, proposed by Kimiz Dalkir, Ph.D., combines several of the concepts we’ve discussed into one general framework. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Frequent flooding of the Arkansas River prompted Tulsa officials to develop a system of river parks to minimize the effects of recurring floods. Tips for effective communication and dissemination Instruction focuses on four phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. The partnership between the academic and practitioner communities is realized in all the activities of the HRL. Through the Higher Education Program, FEMA works closely with the research community to develop standardized curricula on hazards and disasters. The State of Texas has been developing hurricane evacuation plans based on social science research carried out by the Hazard Reduction and Recovery Center (HRRC), which was established at Texas A&M University in 1988. What is knowledge dissemination? Residents were surveyed about their knowledge of the 100-year floodplain, flood risk awareness, preferred warning methods, perceived response, impacts of false alarms, and flood and weather information (Gruntfest et al., 2002). Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. The knowledge that they disseminate to spur science-based decision making and implementation cuts across all of the core topics of hazards and disaster research depicted in Figure 1.1 and Figure 1.2. One of the most important challenges is the lack of systematic and recent research on this topic, resulting in an undue reliance on anecdotally derived insights. What is known about scientific information needs to be translated into language that potential users can readily understand, abbreviated so that attention spans are not exceeded, and made to concentrate on the key issues: Does it work? While such interactions are common, they are rarely documented. EMI’s curricula are structured to meet the needs of this diverse audience with an emphasis on how the various stakeholders can work together to save lives and protect property. It was developed over a two-year period during which the research team worked with villages in rural El Salvador, St. Lucia, Dominica, and the Dominican Republic. EMI has regularly engaged social science hazards and disaster researchers to help develop curricula and serve on its advisory board. Also noteworthy are examples of researchers who work with state and local governments to help translate research into practice. In addition to its basic research and training mission, the HRL facilitates federal, state, and local efforts to improve emergency preparedness, planning, and response through its outreach activities. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Toward a communicative perspective of collaborating in research: the case of the researcher-decision-maker partnership. One goal of this research is to examine the correlation between what people think they would do during a hurricane evacuation and what they actually do. 7 The Role of State-of-the-Art Technologies and Methods for Enhancing Studies of Hazards and Disasters, 9 The Present and Future Hazards and Disaster Research Workforce, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Facing Hazards and Disasters: Understanding Human Dimensions, http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/practitioner.asp, http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?theme=29, 2 Societal Changes Influencing the Context of Research, 3 Social Science Research on Hazard Mitigation, Emergency Preparedness, and Recovery Preparedness, 4 Research on Disaster Response and Recovery, 5 Interdisciplinary Hazards and Disaster Research, 6 International Research:Confronting the Challenges of Disaster Risk Reduction and Development, 8 Knowledge Dissemination and Application. While the specific content of his presentations varied so as to reflect his work at particular points in time, Drabek consistently carried a singular message: Emergency management can be practiced best if it reflects actions rooted in scientific knowledge rather than myth. Even government investigators have indirectly criticized the design and implementation of the scale. Recommendation 8.1: Renewed attention should be given by the social science hazards and disaster research community to the need for formal evaluation research on knowledge utilization in the field. This resulted in the establishment of the National Incident Management System (NIMS). With so many nations having variations in exposure to disaster risks, cross-cultural research on knowledge utilization is a promising area of inquiry, one that social scientists in the United States should pursue aggressively. So why was this knowledge ignored at all levels of government? CSEPP training products, because of the social science involvement, reflect current knowledge derived from social science research. This means that ICS training must be consistent with the concepts, principles and characteristics of the ICS training offered by various DHS training entities. Furthermore, the project design and conduct could be influenced by information from users, making the research more relevant to users’ needs. However, the value of any knowledge product hangs on its effective dissemination to present and future audiences: without outreach the efforts of knowledge workers are wasted. The concept of ICS was developed more than 30 years ago in the. The committee concludes that the substance of this research is directly applicable to the transfer of social science knowledge on hazards and disasters. The literature on dissemination and knowledge utilization spans a number of disciplines, including the fields of rehabilitation, education, sociology, psychology, and marketing. One of the innovative features of the program is that Tulsa charged a $4 per month drainage fee, collected with water bills, to support land management and maintenance of the stormwater drainage system for land acquired by the city. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Content management systems are used to update, distribute, tag, and otherwise manage content. The Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center (NHRAIC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder was founded in 1976 by Gilbert White and J. Eugene Haas as a direct outgrowth of the First Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards. Federal agencies have incorporated social science knowledge, albeit not always systematically, into guidance documents for local emergency management agencies and, in doing so, have engaged social scientists to help prepare these guides. Dissemination of knowledge enable the existing knowledge to be accessible and exploited in order to apply it to solve specific tasks cheaply, faster, much better and finally perform better than rivals in … This approach has been institutionalized at the National Science Foundation (NSF) where proposals on disaster research and other topics must address how the work will provide societal benefits to potential user communities. He has spanned successfully boundaries that few others were willing to traverse. Three of these courses were developed by Thomas Drabek, who as noted above, has been actively engaged with professionals and practitioners in the emergency management field, including those at the local, state, and national levels. Sometimes this is the principal type of knowledge disseminated by an entity, while in other instances, knowledge from other relevant disciplines is also promoted to further disaster reduction. Organizations are crucial in planning for, managing, responding to, and recovering from emergencies. Example of good dissemination plans in grant applications. IT is useful in most stages of the knowledge sharing process, and it is used for content management as well as data and text mining (looking for hidden knowledge, relationships, etc. NHRAIC is affiliated with the University of Colorado’s Institute of Behavioral Science and the Institute’s Environment and Behavior Program. Approximately 5,500 participants attend resident EMI courses each year, while 100,000 individuals participate in nonresident programs sponsored by EMI and conducted by state emergency management agencies under cooperative agreements with FEMA. Like the relationships with his advisory committee members, Professor Drabek has developed bonds of trust with numerous practitioners. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Another research utilization investigation carried out by Yin and his colleagues involved case studies of nine applied projects in the hazards and disaster field dealing with earth science, engineering, and social science topics (Yin and Moore, 1985). Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 2005;10(Supplement 1):35-47. As part of the effort, a comprehensive survey was conducted for two populations living in the Boulder Creek 100-year floodplain. Evidence in action, acting on evidence: a casebook of health services and policy research knowledge translation stories . Information is not concise, bulleted, and to the point. They also favored meetings and conferences as the most effective way of acquiring new research information. researchers based on an integrated gender-based model. This goal is based on the anticipation that in the future more and more emergency managers in government as well as in business and industry will need to come to the job with a college degree in emergency management. This discussion is intended to illustrate the range of activities and programs that comprise the hazards and disasters research utilization infrastructure and to demonstrate the principles of information dissemination and application derived from the broader research literature. Diffusion – efforts that are passive and largely unplanned, uncontrolled and primarily horizontal or mediated by peers. research faculty for such efforts. Future evaluation studies should augment the case study and qualitative approaches favored by Yin and his colleagues (Yin and Moore, 1985; Yin and Andranovitch, 1987) with those approaches that allow for quantitative and other kinds of analyses. The research led to a step-by step guide developed by the. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 2003 Oct 2;8:44-50. Like his many other efforts, this has brought the work of disaster sociologists to large audiences who might otherwise have never learned of them. The Australian National Institute of Clinical Studies emergency care community of practice, Dissemination and use of research evidence for policy and practice: a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating strategies, Can take place at the end of a project once findings are ready to share (i.e. Properties highly vulnerable to flooding were bought out or donated in an effort to eliminate structures in flood hazard zones. This project is an example of social science researchers working together internationally to develop new ways of studying community vulnerability and improving local capabilities for response to hazards and disasters in rural areas. Two core missions of the center relate directly to knowledge transfer: To disseminate findings to the research community and to practitioners so they can use this knowledge to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. During the 1990s, Drabek conducted three major studies that docu-. Lavis JN. Thomas E. Drabek (John Evans Professor Emeritus, University of Denver) has conducted disaster research studies during the past four decades. establish a 24-hour warning point and emergency operations center. For example, it is crucial to have an understanding of just how much practitioners such as urban planners, emergency managers, and public health officials know about social science knowledge on hazards and disasters, the source of their information, and whether or not they ever apply it when making decisions about risk reduction. Disseminate definition is - to spread abroad as though sowing seed. This survey provided an important database for city officials. It is unclear why progress has not been made in these two cases, which again point to the need for more studies of research utilization. Grimshaw J, Thomas RE, MacLennan G, Fraser C, Ramsay CR, Vale L, et al. This requires a “soup-to-nuts” research strategy. In trying to understand how successful many of these programs and activities have been, the committee has had to rely principally on anecdotal or experiential insights and reputation, rather than on research-based evidence. that survivors would have to endure conditions never before experienced in a disaster in the United States. Consequently, Congress mandated the creation of a system by the U.S. Forest Service that would “make a quantum jump in the capabilities of Southern California wild land fire protection agencies to effectively coordinate interagency action and to allocate suppression resources in dynamic, multiple-fire situations” (NIMS, 2004). For example, flood channel and river. As discussed in Chapter 6, disasters impact developed and developing countries alike. Interactions between researchers and policy makers can facilitate disaster management. His projects underscored the wide gaps between the expectations of business managers and their customers regarding disaster preparedness, behavioral responses, and approaches to mitigation. Quick action by the manager of Van Wert Cinemas and his staff got more than 50 adults and children out of theaters in the multiplex and into safer conditions in a hallway and restrooms. A major challenge facing NEHRP is furthering the use by local, state, and private stakeholders of the science-based knowledge it generates. Researchers were asked how they disseminated their own work, the effectiveness of the different dissemination mechanisms they employed, and if their research was used. Very little research has been conducted on the utilization of social science knowledge of hazards and disasters. A fruitful line of research would be to compare the use of such technologies among information providers and to measure their value in stimulating research utilization. White and one of his former students, Eve Gruntfest, have worked over the years with city officials to develop a comprehensive floodplain management plan for Boulder Creek and its tributaries. Journal of Urban Health 2005;82(2; Supplement 2):ii3-ii12. New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form, but also and increasingly through the Open Access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported. Although all of the responding agencies cooperated to the best of their ability, numerous problems with communication and coordination hampered their effectiveness. Annual Review of Public Health 2000 May 12;21(1):369-402. Again, participants at the committee’s workshops affirmed the need for political support to implement new programs. The goal of the workshop is to bring. Finally, some of the 18 activities and programs shown in the matrix use new technologies such as GIS and the Internet as part of their strategies for disseminating information. A well-developed strategic plan for how knowledge will be adopted in a new setting—including attention to implementation problems and how they will be addressed—is essential to meeting the challenges of adoption and sustained change. The task force reviewed the Witt report and dismissed some of its findings as scientifically invalid, endorsing others. As part of its information dissemination program, NHRAIC maintains a library totaling approximately 28,000 items, which is available to students, visiting scholars, and practitioners. Previous chapters of this report have documented the contributions that social scientists have made to understanding hazards and disasters of various types. Additionally, he accepted lecture invitations extended by emergency managers in Italy, Thailand, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Mexico. More systematic research is needed on the dissemination and application of hazards and disaster information generated by the social sciences and other disciplines. Report No. Together, with the assistance of Ruth Drabek and two STIM staff, George Ikeda and Russell Uyeno, they prepared a guide for university faculty in departments of tourism, hospitality, and travel management. of knowledge dissemination, and thus subsets of knowledge dissemination (Scott et al., 2007). This pre-approval process enables researchers to go into the field rapidly if a disaster event occurs that falls within the parameters of their proposals. Local practitioners noted that findings simply do not get disseminated to them and that they do not know where to go to obtain information. have more than one way to receive severe weather warnings and forecasts and to alert the public. The City of Boulder, Colorado has a major potential for serious flash flooding. The goal of this effort was to convey specific information as concisely as possible. BMJ 2007 Jan 20;334(7585):129-32. More specifically, much of the research conducted on hazards and disasters is geared toward providing a more informed basis for actions by policy makers and practitioners. In developing course material for this program, Drabek has relied not only upon his own disaster research results but also on those produced by a host of other NEHRP-funded researchers in the social sciences. In such cases, placement was decided on the basis of the major characteristics of the programs or activities. Detention basins, which are now local amenities and instruments of flood management, were built and old ones cleaned up. While most disaster researchers would agree that the scale is not a warning system, much of what has been learned by disaster researchers on effective risk communication practices is largely ignored in the development of the system (NRC, 2002a). This system provides warnings in the form of a set of graduated “threat conditions” that increase as the risk of the threat advances. NHRAIC also publishes monographs and special reports based on social science research on hazards and disasters, including many NEHRP-sponsored studies. bank cleanups became commonplace. Canadian Health Services Research Foundation. For example, the HRL maintains the most comprehensive database in the nation on hazard events and losses in the United States (http://sheldus.org). Two such examples are briefly discussed below as a contrast to the more successful examples noted earlier. Finally, cross-cultural studies on research utilization, involving social science or other kinds of knowledge related to hazards and disasters, would provide an opportunity for the collaborative international research called for in Chapter 6. An early example of the direct utilization of social science input by the National Weather Service (NWS) involved its Southern Region Headquarters initiating an emphasis on calls to action (CTAs) as part of its warning process in the early 1970s (Troutman et al., 2001). 2 For this reason, dissemination is a core responsibility of any organization … But the examples cited above indicate clearly that research utilization does take place under certain conditions, particularly when researchers and potential users interact in meaningful ways. the knowledge generated is intended to be used towards specific ends-- strengthening community programs, improving public policy, sharing vital information with community ... For example, when planning a dissemination event, consider the venue’s accessibility, the day and time of the event, Researchers study the full range of natural and technological hazards and disasters, including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, and chemical plant and transportation accidents. As discussed in other chapters of this report, NEHRP has fostered social science research on disasters and has championed the application of knowledge generated by this research. For analytical purposes, a simple matrix is used to categorize these efforts according to principles derived from the extant research utilization literature. Denis J-L, Lehoux P, Hivon M, Champagne F. Creating a new articulation between research and practice through policy? From Research to Practice: A Knowledge Transfer Planning Guide. Other functional areas that have been influenced by social scientists at Indian Point include revisions of strategies for providing public informa-. Threat conditions are assigned by the attorney general in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security. Considerable research has been conducted in the social and management sciences generally on what has been variously described as research dissemination, knowledge utilization, research utilization, knowledge transfer, adoption of innovation, and technology transfer. While much remains to be learned about research utilization in the social science hazards and disaster field, efforts to stimulate utilization have been carried out for many years by a variety of entities—especially in academia, government, and the nonprofit sector. within data and documents).. One of the first steps in becoming compliant with NIMS requires states and local governments to institutionalize the use of ICS (as taught by DHS) across the entire response system. According to the researchers, these sources are not just limited to research projects, but also include insights derived from experience that represent “craft-based” knowledge. Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. Researchers have identified a number of key factors in promoting organizational effectiveness during the immediate emergency period of disasters. One general finding is that civilian organizations in the United States do not function well under military models of command and control. knowledge user driven), Dissemination strategies should include a plan to evaluate the impact of the chosen approach, including ways to measure success, Serve as an intermediary who can facilitate collaborations between researchers and knowledge users, find evidence to shape decisions, assess, interpret and adapt evidence to local context and identify emerging issues that research can help solve, Marketing and communication knowledge and skills and the capacity to span boundaries and understand the potentially disparate worlds of researchers and knowledge users is recommended, Individuals with diverse experience in these different worlds or organizations whose mandate it is to span these worlds would be ideal knowledge brokers, Knowledge brokering is not new; what is new are calls to recognize and formalize this role and evaluate its effectiveness as a KT mechanism, Connect researchers and knowledge users who might not otherwise have an opportunity to interact, enable dialogue, stimulate learning and capture and disseminate knowledge, producers of knowledge plan and implement approaches to push (disseminate) knowledge toward audiences who they believe need to receive it, knowledge users plan and implement strategies to pull knowledge from sources they identify as producing knowledge that is useful to their decision making, includes efforts to bring the researcher and knowledge user communities together through an interactive process either at the end of a project to facilitate end of grant KT or throughout the research project as part of an IKT approach, Integrated knowledge translation also known as collaborative research, action research, participatory research, co-production of knowledge or Mode 2 research, Involves researcher/knowledge user collaboration throughout the research process, This approach is most appropriately used to understand and address complex, relevant and timely "real-life health or health system issues that require engagement of multiple stakeholders in both the research and change processes, Potentially more time-consuming, demanding and resource intensive but involving knowledge users as partners in the research process is a strong predictor that the research findings will be used the research project will achieve a greater impact, A process to develop a shared perspective, common language and common understanding about the health problem/issue that the team will focus on, A mutually negotiated and agreed upon plan to guide the collaboration including clear roles and responsibilities, Including team members with experience in engaging in collaborative research processes, A strategy for ensuring that trusting relationships among team members are maintained and conflicts are resolved appropriately when they arise, Institutional support, including incentives in both academic and knowledge user environments to participate in and recognize IKT as a worthwhile activity, Studies are needed to help identify and test optimal strategies for knowledge dissemination and exchange in different contexts, In particular, studies are needed to evaluate the impact of knowledge brokers and networks as KT mechanisms, As innovative approaches to exchange and dissemination grow and evolve, increasing focus should be placed on developing indicators to evaluate these processes and their impact on relevant short, medium and long-term outcomes, Dissemination targets research findings to specific audiences, Dissemination activities should be considered and outlined in a dissemination plan, Researchers should engage knowledge users to craft messages and help disseminate research findings, Collaborative relationships between researchers and knowledge users built on trust and frequent interaction appear to enhance the effectiveness of dissemination and exchange activities, Knowledge brokers, networks, and communities of practice hold promise as innovative ways to disseminate and exchange knowledge, Knowledge exchange, or integrated KT, involves active collaboration and exchange between researchers and knowledge users throughout the research process. 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