, By 1900 the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. Dynamite Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.  Household electrification did not become common until the 1920s, and then only in cities. The Second Industrial Revolution (1850-1914) The Economy The Society Labor Reforms The Governments The Products Consequences Inventors and Inventions Fun Facts The Economy Division of Nations Industrialized Non Industrialized Inequality Rich and power World: developed nations and non developed nations The Society The economic development created social inequality. Being a much more durable material, steel steadily replaced iron as the standard for railway rail, and due to its greater strength, longer lengths of rails could now be rolled. Very Important Inventions of the Second Industrial Revolution The radical and profound changes in political structure, economic relations and technical developments can be termed as 'Revolution'. Excitement and debate over the dangers and benefits of the Atomic Age were more intense and lasting than those over the Space age but both were predicted to lead to another industrial revolution. New Innovations. Penn also introduced the trunk engine for driving screw propellers in vessels of war. Germany was not weighted down with an expensive worldwide empire that needed defense.  Alloy steels were used for ball bearings which were used in large scale bicycle production in the 1880s. At the time, chemistry was still in a quite primitive state; it was still a difficult proposition to determine the arrangement of the elements in compounds and chemical industry was still in its infancy. , Improvements in steam efficiency, like triple-expansion steam engines, allowed ships to carry much more freight than coal, resulting in greatly increased volumes of international trade. Built on an unprecedented scale and pioneering the use of high voltage (10,000V) alternating current, it generated 800 kilowatts and supplied central London. This was set out as a formal strategic goal, which became known as the All Red Line.  Drake learned of cable tool drilling from Chinese laborers in the U. S. The first primary product was kerosene for lamps and heaters. With the introduction of cheaper paper, schoolbooks, fiction, non-fiction, and newspapers became gradually available by 1900. "Modeling the Transition to a New Economy: Lessons from Two Technological Revolutions,". The boat was built at Tipton using temporary bolts, disassembled for transportation to London, and reassembled on the Thames in 1822, this time using permanent rivets. , The first modern power station in the world was built by the English electrical engineer Sebastian de Ferranti at Deptford. 2 Industrial Innovations. Young found that by slow distillation he could obtain a number of useful liquids from it, one of which he named "paraffine oil" because at low temperatures it congealed into a substance resembling paraffin wax. The petroleum industry, both production and refining, began in 1848 with the first oil works in Scotland. "Second industrial revolution" has been used in the popular press and by technologists or industrialists to refer to the changes following the spread of new technology after World War I. , It was Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi who successfully commercialized radio at the turn of the century. Print. The large number of stages of the turbine allowed for high efficiency and reduced size by 90%. In 1850s, a process called ‘Bessemer process’ was developed for the production of steel. In Science and Technology. However, those governors were sluggish and oscillated about the set point. It took several years to perfect and become popular, but found application in shipping before powering locomotives. Standardization of screw threads began with Henry Maudslay around 1800, when the modern screw-cutting lathe made interchangeable V-thread machine screws a practical commodity. Nov 6, 1868. Other major components of this infrastructure were the new methods for manufacturing steel, especially the Bessemer process. In some cases, the advancement of such mechanization substituted for low-skilled workers altogether. His experiments with sound, in order to make the deaf communicate, lead to the invention of telephone. The revolution in naval design led to the first modern battleships in the 1870s, evolved from the ironclad design of the 1860s. Perkin's accidental discovery was that aniline could be partly transformed into a crude mixture which when extracted with alcohol produced a substance with an intense purple colour. The work of Michael Faraday and others was pivotal in laying the foundations of the modern scientific understanding of electricity. The AC motor (Induction motor) was developed in the 1890s and soon began to be used in the electrification of industry. The innovations and inventions of the technological revolution are the contributory factors for the modern life that we live today. Vassiliou, M. S. (2009). Fluorescent lighting was commercially introduced at the 1939 World's Fair. David Edward Hughes and Heinrich Hertz both demonstrated and confirmed the phenomenon of electromagnetic waves that had been predicted by Maxwell. , The first paper making machine was the Fourdrinier machine, built by Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier, stationers in London. Second industrial revolution, which began somewhere in the 19 th century, is also known as the technological revolution.It is said to have begun in the 1840s and spread until the First World War. , By 1900, the leaders in industrial production was Britain with 24% of the world total, followed by the US (19%), Germany (13%), Russia (9%) and France (7%).  From the 1850s until 1911, British submarine cable systems dominated the world system. It also used an innovative oscillating engine for power. The first widely used internal combustion engine was the Otto type of 1876. Hull, James O. Automobiles Among the most influential and the far most reaching innovations of the second industrial revolution was the internal combustion engineIt was first introduced in 1878, and was basically powered by gas and air. Automobile: In 1885, Karl Benz’s Motorwagen, powered by internal combustion engine was the first automobile that was invented. Though a number of its events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is generally dated between 1870 and 1914 (the beginning of World War I)..  Electric lighting in factories greatly improved working conditions, eliminating the heat and pollution caused by gas lighting, and reducing the fire hazard to the extent that the cost of electricity for lighting was often offset by the reduction in fire insurance premiums. Copyright © Historyplex & Buzzle.com, Inc.